Sabtu, 10 Juni 2017

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

Parasitic nematodes that cause greatest agricultural damage abandoned sex

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 10:38 AM PDT

The nematode worms that cause the world's most devastating crop losses have given up on sexual reproduction and instead rely on their large, duplicated genomes to thrive in new environments, report scientists.

Radiation therapy vital to treating brain tumors, but it exacts a toll

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 10:38 AM PDT

Radiation therapy (RT) using high-energy particles is a common and critical component in successfully treating patients with brain tumors but it is also associated with significant adverse effects. In a new study, researchers report that irradiation can cause broader adverse effects, altering the structural network properties in impacted brains and perhaps contributing to delayed cognitive impairments observed in many patients following brain RT.

New study design holds promise for drug safety research

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 09:05 AM PDT

As the pace of drug approvals accelerates and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) faces potential budget cuts, a new research design offers a new way to successfully assess safety of newly approved drugs, as well as drugs that have been on the market for a long time and have had a marked rise in their use.

Risk for binge drinking differs by ethnicities, income and changes with age, study finds

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 09:04 AM PDT

There are differing risks for binge drinking based on race, income and age, say researchers. African-Americans are generally at low risk for binge drinking, but that risk increases disproportionately with age among African-Americans who are poor.

Study shows texting as good as medication at improving type 2 diabetes management

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 09:04 AM PDT

Low-income Hispanics with Type 2 diabetes who received health-related text messages every day for six months saw improvements in their blood sugar levels that equaled those resulting from some glucose-lowering medications, researchers report.

Physicists use numerical 'tweezers' to study nuclear interactions

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 07:40 AM PDT

Researchers have developed numerical 'tweezers' that can pin a nucleus in place, enabling them to study how interactions between protons and neutrons produce forces between nuclei.

Mussels add muscle to biocompatible fibers

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 07:40 AM PDT

Chemists have used the sticky substance found in mussels to develop self-assembling, biocompatible macroscale fibers that can be used as scaffolds for directed cell growth.

Similar design, different genes: Miniature weapons in the animal kingdom

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 07:38 AM PDT

Researchers describe the principle of convergence in unicellular organisms and cnidarians in a new scientific report.

Graphene enhancing our vision of the infinitely small

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 07:22 AM PDT

Researchers report using one-atom-thin graphene film to drastically enhance the quality of electron microscopy images.

The largest virtual Universe ever simulated

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 07:22 AM PDT

Researchers have simulated the formation of our entire Universe with a large supercomputer. A gigantic catalogue of about 25 billion virtual galaxies has been generated from 2 trillion digital particles. This catalogue is being used to calibrate the experiments on board the Euclid satellite, that will be launched in 2020 with the objective of investigating the nature of dark matter and dark energy.

The way toward cleaner coal plants

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 07:22 AM PDT

In an effort to design cleaner coal power plants, researchers have performed some of the most detailed multiphase turbulence simulations ever run.

Could removal of aging cells extend human life?

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 07:22 AM PDT

A research team has confirmed that targeting SnCs could treat age-related degenerative joint disease.

Mind the liquid gap: Liquids are capable of supporting waves with short wavelengths only

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 07:22 AM PDT

Flowing particles in liquids act as a filter to suppress long-wavelength waves but allow short-wavelength ones to be supported, according to physicists.

Space-traveling flatworms help scientists enhance understanding of regenerative health

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 07:22 AM PDT

Flatworms that spent five weeks aboard the International Space Station are helping researchers scientists study how an absence of normal gravity and geomagnetic fields can have anatomical, behavioral, and bacteriological consequences, according to a paper. The research has implications for human and animal space travelers and for regenerative and bioengineering science.

Why microplastic debris may be the next big threat to our seas

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 06:27 AM PDT

More than five trillion pieces of plastic debris are estimated to be in our oceans, though many are impossible to see with the naked eye.

Wind turbines: The strength test

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 06:27 AM PDT

Wind turbines rise into the sky on enormous feet. To ensure these giants can reliably generate electricity for many years to come, the iron processing industry must manufacture their massive components in a stable, resource-saving and yet cost-effective way. However, material inclusions such as dross are often unavoidable while casting. Researchers are currently working to detect and analyze such material defects.

Experimental drug BIA 10-2474 deactivates proteins in human nerve cells

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 06:26 AM PDT

At high doses, drug candidate BIA 10-2474 binds not only to the protein that it targets, but to other proteins as well. It thus deactivates proteins that are involved in the metabolism of nerve cells.

Infants born preterm may lack key lung cells later in life

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 06:12 AM PDT

Mice born into an oxygen-rich environment respond worse to the flu once fully grown due to an absence of certain lung cells, a discovery that provides a potential explanation for preterm infants' added susceptibility to influenza and other lung diseases later in their lives.

Retina may be sensitive gauge of blast-wave pressure injury

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 06:12 AM PDT

Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a well-recognized consequence of extreme blast waves, it is less appreciated that over 80 percent of combat veterans with TBI also develop visual problems. A new study reports that blast exposure that does not cause detectable changes in the brain can result in long-term retinal injury. Researchers identified early indicators of retinal injury and inflammation that may help detect individuals at risk of visual impairment who would then benefit from more timely treatment.

Smiling during victory could hurt future chances of cooperation

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 06:12 AM PDT

Researchers have studied how reacting with a smile affects game outcomes, hoping one day to empower virtual humans with this knowledge.

Simulations pinpoint atomic-level defects in solar cell nanostructures

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 06:12 AM PDT

Heterogeneous nanostructured materials are widely used in various optoelectronic devices, including solar cells. However, the nano-interfaces contain structural defects that can affect performance. Calculations have helped researchers ID the root cause of the defects in two materials and provide design rules to avoid them.

Distinct wiring mode found in chandelier cells

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 06:12 AM PDT

For the first time, researchers show that a unique type of inhibitory interneuron called chandelier cells -- which are implicated in several diseases affecting the brain such as schizophrenia and epilepsy -- seem to develop their connections differently than other types of neurons.

World's first success in asymmetric borylation of ketones

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 06:12 AM PDT

A team of Hokkaido University researchers has developed the world's first method to achieve the catalytic asymmetric borylation of ketones, a breakthrough expected to facilitate the development of new medicines and functional chemicals.

Lost ecosystem found buried in mud of southern California coastal waters

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 06:12 AM PDT

Paleontologists investigating the sea bed off California have discovered a lost ecosystem that for thousands of years had nurtured communities of scallops and shelled marine organisms called brachiopods. They had died off by the early 20th century, replaced by the mud-dwellling burrowing clams that inhabit this seabed today.

Heroin's use rising, costing society more than $51 billion

Posted: 09 Jun 2017 06:12 AM PDT

Heroin use in the United States was estimated to cost society more than $51 billion in 2015, according to new research.

Competitive soccer players have superior vision, study suggests

Posted: 08 Jun 2017 05:21 PM PDT

The visual abilities of competitive soccer players are substantially better than those of healthy non-athletes, according to the first-ever comprehensive assessment of visual function in English Premier League players.

How class of drugs blocks Hepatitis C virus replication

Posted: 08 Jun 2017 05:21 PM PDT

For the first time, researchers show how the antiviral class of drugs called NS5A inhibitors interacts with the hepatitis C virus, and these findings show a difference between strains of HCV.

Quantum nanoscope: Seeing electrons surfing the waves of light on graphene

Posted: 08 Jun 2017 11:56 AM PDT

Researchers have studied how light can be used to 'see' the quantum nature of an electronic material. They managed to do that by capturing light in a net of carbon atoms and slowing down light it down so that it moves almost as slow as the electrons in the graphene.

Obesity increases risk of complications after shoulder joint replacement surgery

Posted: 08 Jun 2017 11:55 AM PDT

For patients undergoing shoulder joint replacement surgery (arthroplasty), higher body mass index is linked to increased complications -- including the need for 'revision' surgery, reports a new study.

Brain imaging reveals neural roots of caring

Posted: 08 Jun 2017 09:36 AM PDT

When others suffer, we humans empathize. Our feelings of empathy take different forms, such as distress when we imagine and internalize someone's pain and compassion as we sympathize with their condition. These different feelings involve distinct patterns of brain activity, according to a study. Feelings of empathy may seem subtle and personal, but this study found that the brain patterns associated with these feelings are consistent and predictable across individuals.

Researchers uncover new instruction manual to repair broken DNA

Posted: 08 Jun 2017 09:36 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered how the Rad52 protein is a crucial player in RNA-dependent DNA repair. The results reveal an unexpected function of the homologous recombination protein Rad52 and may help to identify new therapeutic targets for cancer

Brain's hippocampus can organize memories for events as well as places

Posted: 08 Jun 2017 09:36 AM PDT

The hippocampus can generalize, putting not just places but also events into sequence by changing the neural code in the rat brain, new research demonstrates.

Report looks at liver cancer, fastest-growing cause of cancer deaths in US

Posted: 08 Jun 2017 09:36 AM PDT

A new report provides an overview of incidence, mortality, and survival rates and trends for liver cancer, a cancer for which death rates have doubled in the United States since the mid-1980s

Overriding the urge to sleep

Posted: 08 Jun 2017 09:36 AM PDT

The discovery of neurons that control arousal has implications for insomnia and other sleep disorders, report investigators.

Control of material crystallization by agitation

Posted: 08 Jun 2017 09:36 AM PDT

Ooscillation of materials at a specific frequency markedly accelerates their crystallization, outlines a new report.

The mysterious bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor chain

Posted: 08 Jun 2017 09:36 AM PDT

The volcanic islands of Hawaii represent the youngest end of a 80 million years old and roughly 6,000 kilometers long mountain chain on the ground of the Pacific Ocean. The so-called Hawaiian-Emperor chain consisting of dozens of volcanoes is well known for its peculiar 60 degrees bend. The cause for this bend has been heavily debated for decades. Scientists now offer an explanation in a new study.

Cosmic inflation: Higgs says goodbye to his 'little brother'

Posted: 08 Jun 2017 09:36 AM PDT

In the first moments after the Big Bang, the Universe was able to expand even billions of billions of billions of times faster than today. Such rapid expansion should be due to a primordial force field, acting with a new particle: inflaton. From the latest analysis of the decay of mesons, carried out in the LHCb experiment by physicists from Cracow and Zurich, it appears, however, that the most probable light inflaton almost certainly does not exist.

Fatherhood factors influence how dads spend time with children

Posted: 08 Jun 2017 09:35 AM PDT

A father's resources, relationships, and parenting beliefs affect how he spends time with his children and financially provides for his family, finds a study.

Delayed food introduction increases risk of sensitization, study finds

Posted: 08 Jun 2017 09:35 AM PDT

Infants who avoided cow's milk products in their first year were nearly four times as likely to be sensitized to cow's milk compared to infants who consumed cow's milk products before 12 months of age, scientists discovered from sing data from more than 2,100 children. Similarly, infants who avoided egg or peanut in their first year were nearly twice as likely to be sensitized to those foods compared to infants who consumed them before 12 months of age.

Why the marijuana and tobacco policy camps are on very different paths

Posted: 08 Jun 2017 09:35 AM PDT

New research looked at diverging trajectories of cannabis and tobacco policies in the US and attempts to explain some of the reasoning behind the different paths, while discussing possible implications.

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